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Workshop 2

Characteristic Mode and Characteristic Basis Analyses of Real World Antenna Design Problems
NameProf. Raj Mittra
AffiliationUniversity of Central Florida, USA, and KAU, Saudi Arabia

Biography :

Raj Mittra is a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science department of the University of Central Florida in Orlando, FL., where he is the Director of the Electromagnetic Communication Laboratory. Prior to joining the University of Central Florida, he worked at Penn State as a Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering from 1996 through June, 2015. He was a Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois in Urbana Champaign from 1957 through 1996, when he moved to the Penn State University. Currently, he also holds the position of Hi-Ci Professor at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia.

He is a Life Fellow of the IEEE, a Past-President of AP-S, and he has served as the Editor of the Transactions of the Antennas and Propagation Society. He won the Guggenheim Fellowship Award in 1965, the IEEE Centennial Medal in 1984, and the IEEE Millennium medal in 2000. Other honors include the IEEE/AP-S Distinguished Achievement Award in 2002, the Chen-To Tai Education Award in 2004 and the IEEE Electromagnetics Award in 2006, and the IEEE James H. Mulligan Award in 2011.

Recently he founded the e-Journal FERMAT ( and has been serving as the co-editor-in-chief of the same. Dr. Mittra is a Principal Scientist and President of RM Associates, a consulting company founded in 1980, which provides services to industrial and governmental organizations, both in the U.S. and abroad.

Abstract :

The Characteristic Mode theory of antenna analysis and design has received the attention of many researchers in recent years, because it provides a brand new way of looking at the problem of placing antennas on a given platform to achieve a desired radiation pattern; to reduce coupling between antennas in a MIMO design; to achieve a wideband performance compared to that of the original antenna, etc. In this presentation, we will begin by reviewing the fundamentals of the Characteristic Mode Analysis (CMA) to bring the audience up-to-date with the fundamentals of CMA as well as with its latest developments. Next, we will discuss a number of real-world problems arising in practical antenna applications, and identify some challenging issues that have been encountered by the antenna designers in the process of applying the CMA to these problems. These include, among others, excitation of the Characteristic modes on complex platforms; antenna placement on these platforms to achieve a desired radiation pattern, specified over a limited angular range; determining excitation coefficients of antennas to achieve interference suppression of unwanted signals.

Following this, we will present a modification of the classical CMA paradigm to address the issues mentioned above in a systematic manner. We will present several examples illustrating the applications of this new approach, which is based on the use of Characteristic Basis Functions (CBFs), as opposed to ‘modes’. Next, we will discuss several case examples, including a mobile phone, the topside of a ship, a UAV and GPS antenna system. The issues of antenna placement as well as interference suppression will be discussed.

A partial list of references is given below. Additional references will be provided at the workshop.
[1]   Dolph C L. A Current Distribution for Broadside Arrays which optimizes the Relationship between Beam width and Side-lobe level. Proceedings of the IRE. vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 335,348, June 1946.
[2]   Woodward P M, Lawson J D. The theoretical Precision with which an Arbitrary Radiation Pattern may be obtained from a Source of Finite Size. Electrical Engineers - Part I: General, Journal of the Institution of. vol. 95, no. 93, pp. 405, September 1948.
[3]   Taylor T T. Design of Line Source Antennas for Narrow Beam width and Low Side Lobes. Transactions of the IRE Professional Group on Antennas and Propagation. vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 16-28, Jan. 1955.
[4]   Bayliss E T. Design of Monopulse Antenna Difference Patterns with Low Side lobes. The Bell System Technical Journal. vol. 47, pp. 623-650, May-June 1968.
[5]   Garbacz R J. A generalized expansion for radiated and scattered field. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol. 19, pp. 662,668, May, 1971.
[6]   Harrington R F, Mautz J R. Theory of characteristic modes for conducting bodies. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.19, no.5, pp. 622,628, 1971.
[7]   Harrington R F, Mautz J R. Computation of characteristic modes for conducting bodies. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.19, no.5, pp. 629,639, 1971.
[8]   Shaker G, Safavi-Naeini S, Sangary N. Q-Bandwidth Relations for the Design of Coupled Multi-Element Antennas. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Charleston, SC, 2009.
[9]   Shaker G, Safavi-Naeini S, Sangary N. A generalized modal analysis method for antenna design. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Charleston, SC, 2009.
[10]   Martens R, Manteuffel D. Systematic Design Method of a Mobile Multiple antenna System Using the Theory of Characteristic Modes. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation. vol.8, no.12, pp. 887,893, 2014.
[11]   Shih T Y, Behdad N. Bandwidth Enhancement of Platform-Mounted HF Antennas Using the Characteristic Mode Theory. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.PP, no.99, pp.1,1,2016.
[12]   Shih T Y, Behdad N. Bandwidth enhancement of HF antennas mounted on military platforms using a Characteristic-Modes-Based Design Approach. International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP), Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, pp. 1,3, 2015.
[13]   Newman E H. Small antenna location synthesis using characteristic modes. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.21, no.4, pp. 530,531,1979.
[14]   Prakash V, Mittra R. Characteristic basis function method: A new technique for efficient solution of method of moments matrix equation. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 36, (2), pp. 95,100, 2003.
[15]   Lucente E, Monorchio A, Mittra R. An iteration-free MoM approach based on excitation independent characteristic basis functions for solving large multiscale electromagnetic scattering problems. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.56, no.4, pp.999,1007, 2008.
[16]   Maaskant R, Mittra R, Tijhuis A. Fast Analysis of Large Antenna Arrays Using the Characteristic Basis Function Method and the Adaptive Cross Approximation Algorithm. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.56, no.11, pp.3440,3451, 2008.
[17]   Bianconi G, Pelletti C, Mittra R. Spectral domain characteristic basis function method for efficient simulation of microstrip devices in layered media. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation. vol.6, no.4, pp. 411,417, 2012.
[18]   Young A, Maaskant R, Ivashina M V. Accurate Beam Prediction Through Characteristic Basis Function Patterns for the MeerKAT/SKA Radio Telescope Antenna. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.61, no.5, pp.2466,2473, 2013.
[19]   Maaskant R, Ivashina M V, Wijnholds S J.Efficient Prediction of Array Element Patterns Using Physics-Based Expansions and a Single Far-Field Measurement. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.60, no.8, pp.3614,3621, 2012.
[20]   Cheng D K. Optimization techniques for antenna arrays. Proceedings of the IEEE. vol.59, no.12, pp. 1664,1674, 1971.
[21]   Marrocco G, Mattioni L, Martorelli V. Naval Structural Antenna Systems for Broadband HF Communications-Part II: Design Methodology for Real Naval Platforms. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on. vol.54, no.11, pp. 3330,3337, 2006.
[22]   Chao Li , Raj Mittra "Controlling Radiation Patterns of Antennas Mounted on Complex Platforms using the Characteristic Basis Functions (CBFs)" Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, VOL. 30, NO. 10, 1354–1365,2016.

Important Dates

    Paper Submission Deadline:

May 1, 2017

May 15, 2017

May 31, 2017

(Hard deadline)

12:00 am(Thailand standard time)

    Notification of Acceptance :

August 1-6, 2017

    Early Bird Registration Deadline:

August 31, 2017

September 4, 2017 (Extend)